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what is a router in networking? What is their function and different types?

Learn throughout this excellent article, What is a router and what is its function? In addition, you will find out in details about the different types of router that are currently available and how to configure it .what is a router in networking

what is a router in networking?

It is a peripheral that manages to connect various devices in the same network in a local bandwidth, thus managing to distribute the Internet connection to other laptops and exchanging data packets between the network.

The main idea of ​​this peripheral called router is to serve as a bridge or intermediary to link one or more devices in the same local network and distribute Internet connection.

Said device works under layer 3 of the OSI model, in which a starting and an arrival team are linked through the router, which allows several devices to connect and share an Internet connection.

What is your function?

what is a router in networking

An important part of having knowledge about What is a router? It is to understand the function of this peripheral, which is so important today and in daily life.

The main function of the router is to share access to the internet wirelessly, which is known today as a WIFI network, each router has the unique ability to send the signal through the air, this can be short or medium long.

The router is responsible for giving internet connection to wireless devices through a routing protocol, which joins a set of IPs and establishes the destination route to each of the data packets, in this way it will define which is , at all times, the fastest route to transfer said data.

Router Features

These important devices used in daily life have very particular qualities which we will mention so that you take them into account:

  • They have neuroinformatic intelligence which can handle different security protocols.
  • They are capable of changing the address format to which each data packet can reach the destination of the device.
  • They secure the WIFI wireless network, through filter settings to restrict access to intruders.
  • They reduce network pressure by isolating traffic and crash domains from the various routes to which the network connects.
  • Manage and control traffic to specific locations and addresses such as WAN, LAN and WLAN connections.
  • It has provision to connect wirelessly or through cables.
  • Assign IP addresses quickly and automatically.
  • It can be connected via cables with Ethernet network, which is an internal connection network system.
  • Informs the user when the system is saturated.
  • Control the computers to which data can be sent.
  • It allows the duality of connection through cables.
  • Automatically update routing tables.
  • It generates all the transmission that reaches the various devices.
  • They come in a variety of sizes and are very lightweight.
  • The interface is straightforward, which helps to connect multiple users at the same time.
  • It emits the signal through a system of antennas that can be internally integrated. In some equipment you can see up to four antennas.

Reviewing the market, it is easy to choose a router economically and from different brands and models, there are also those routers that use the technology of a modem and a router both merged, which allow economic savings.

Router types

what is a router in networking
what is a router in networking

In this section we will specify the different types that exist of these incredible devices, since you have knowledge about What is a router? You will need to have this knowledge and we all have one of these at home to give internet connection to all devices of the family pays a lot of attention so that you don’t forget any of them.

Type B router

These types of router are the oldest and therefore the slowest on the market, a router of this type is compatible with wireless connection speeds of up to 11 Mbps and uses a frequency of 2.4 GHz.

Although this type of router is the cheapest on the market, it is not recommended due to its inconsistency in data transfer and interference between the appliances and the waves of the kitchen heater can cause problems.

Type G router what is a router in networking

This type of router uses the same 2.4GHz band as type B, however it increases its bandwidth to 54 mega bits, this increase allows a more stable and faster connection for users in its use.

With this they can access applications with more internet consumption such as games, videos, online movies and download between devices and WIFI transfer between themselves.

N-type router

These are the fastest routers today and the ones that predominate in the market, they use a technology called multiple input and multiple output.

These usually have multiple antennas to satisfy and distribute the connection in the user’s area, each antenna operates within a broadband field between 2.4GHz to 5GHz. One band uses the input while the other optimizes the output.

These are the ones that provide connection speed of up to 400Mbps, these routers easily support recordings and streaming services in high definition, as well as online video games.

Mobile Router

These use cellular network connection to connect to the internet and provide wireless connection wherever you take it, since this is totally portable, and any cellular connection or better known as mega that is associated with this device, will be sharing as a wireless router.

These can also be used as a router since it is connected through a network adapter to the computer, in the same way as a conventional home or office router.

The speed of network connection can vary greatly depending on the intensity of the service company to which your cell phone is associated, 4G connections are believed to be capable of fighting or competing with the speeds of a type N router.

Other types of router

  • They are home routers or what is considered for small companies. They allow access to the internet through a private and secure virtual network to broadband, from the local network.
  • Distribution routers. They are the ones that get the most traffic through other virtual routers, or thanks to the accumulation of data.
  • Core routers. Responsible for managing different levels of these devices.
  • Wireless routers. It acts as an intermediary between computer networks for the connection of other mobile devices.
  • ADSL routers. They allow to connect, at the same time, several local networks and several computers with the intention of supplying internet to other computers through cables.

Routing protocols what is a router in networking

Since we know the different types of routers that currently exist, we must have knowledge exactly, of how these teams do to route to other devices and communicate with each other by sending data and information packets through an internet connection.

It is a set of rules that the router uses in communication with other routers in order to share routing information, said information in communication is used to build statistics called information tables.

This protocol is the application of an algorithm to route software or hardware between the router and other devices.

Type A routing

This routing has 2 sub-classification between it, both use an administrator for the network. what is a router in networking

Interior:   They are network administrators that intercept within a single autonomous system. Some examples of this routing protocol are RIP, IGRP, EIGRP, OSPF.

Exterior: This type manages network routes that connect with different autonomous systems, some examples of this type of routing protocol are IGP and EGP.

Type B routing what is a router in networking

This is an autonomous system which is in charge of managing a set of networks or routers that have a single routing policy and that is executed under a common administration, normally using the IGP protocol. what is a router in networking

Each system has an identifier number of about 16 bits that is randomly assigned by an internet registry or a service provider, some examples of this registry are, RIPE, ARIN or APNIC.

In this way we will be able to divide the connection through administration modules that are capable of organizing and dividing smaller and more manipulable networks.

Static routing what is a router in networking

The main problem posed by keeping the static routing tables stable is that the router is not developed to withstand changes that may occur in the topology, however this type of routing manages to have an advantage in the following situations.

  • An unreliable system that constantly stops working.
  • Compared to dynamic routing this is the most stable because its registration does not change.
  • It can be accessed through the phone, there is only one connection to a single ISP.
  • It does not recognize other routes that are normally generated in a broadband balloon because this is totally static.

Default routing what is a router in networking

Refers to a kind of static route to an outbound connection of last resort, traffic sent to these unknown router devices are all sent to the outbound connection. The easiest way of routing for a domain with a single exit point, this is indicated as 0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0.

Dynamic routing what is a router in networking

The different types of routing protocols maintain dynamic tables by means of 1/0 codes to understand update messages, these messages that have informational elements about the changes suffered in the network, and the software of this peripheral is totally responsible only for updating its data packets.

Routing algorithm what is a router in networking

These are computer codes that develop on their own through the peripheral and the internet connection to make external devices connect to be able to distribute the internet connection, these are classified into 2, which we will mention below.

Distance vector

  • This is in charge of configuring and finding the direction and shortest distance to any link in the network to take to the destination device.
  • Regular updates.
  • It will transmit copies or partial of the routing tables by configuration.
  • Slow convergence.
  • Increase metrics through automatic system updates.

Link status what is a router in networking

  • Recreate the exact replica of the network.
  • Look for a common junction between the network topology and the network.
  • Updates are triggered by changes to the network replica.
  • It prefers one route over another, this because of the network topology.
  • Its metric is based on a bandwidth delay to load the various possible links to reach the target devices. what is a router in networking

Difference between modem and router

These two devices are very similar physically and technically, the functions it fulfills also mean that they may have similar functions. The characteristics of a router are designed to provide a wireless internet connection, while the modem does the same but wired.

In such a way that it allows to connect to a number of devices at the same time, of course when the connection volume is high, the traffic increases and the connection and speed decrease. For its part, the Modem is a device that takes the signal from the internet service provider and converts it into data that is used by any device.

The modem works with a series of codes that it modifies and transforms into a signal so that they can be received by various devices. The signal that comes from the provider is made through a fiber optic cable, then it is sent to the router in order to be transmitted through radio waves that the devices can receive it.

There is another device that is not widely used, it is very similar to the Router. Called signal repeater devices, they are used at home and large rooms where the router signal does not reach, they are placed in specific places and extend the signal that even reaches more than 100 M2.

Points to consider when buying a router

Pay close attention because this device is currently essential at home or office and here we will explain the exact points so as not to fail in the attempt to buy one. what is a router in networking

  • WiFi version : There are different types of WiFi connection versions, so it is important that when making the purchase of this peripheral that we look at this compatibility with the most modern versions. In this case, it is recommended that it be compatible with WiFi IPV6. what is a router in networking
  • Ports : It is advisable to look at the Ethernet ports that it offers us since we can use them daily to connect any equipment by cable, as well as the USB ports and their standard so that they allow us high transfers in the local network, it is recommended that this is USB 3.0.
  • Processor and data transmission : The processor and data transmission are two of the most important elements in this device, since these go between hands, the better the processor, the better the sending of data and guaranteeing performance to the equipment. It is recommended that the data transmission is 300Mbps.
  • Firmware: You have to check and be aware that it has a complete firmware that does not allow us to access and configure a lot of options. In the case of slightly older models or not very recognized brands, we may find that certain aspects are not configurable. Of the most recognized brands there will not be any type of problems.

Recommendations what is a router in networking

Knowing about What is a router? Its main functions and characteristics allows the user to know its specifications and operation. That is why it is good that when using it for the first time you should read the manual carefully.

Also try to place it in places where there is no interruption of television signals, antennas, microwaves, cables or other electronic device that could interrupt the signal. It is important to take into account that if there is some type of obstruction in the transmission of the transmission, the router will not be able to operate efficiently. what is a router in networking

Today, these devices are indispensable in daily life, both for companies and at home, this because since they transmit the internet to our mobile devices such as laptops, smartphones, tablets, video game consoles and even household appliances that are created to be managed remotely.

Little by little we automate our lives with this type of device, since it can provide internet connection to light bulbs, air conditioners, washing machines, dryers and endless options at home that it is essential to have this type of peripherals at home .

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