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Factors Affecting Curriculum Development in Pakistan

Background of the study:

Curriculum implementation entails putting into practice the officially prescribed courses of study, syllabuses and subjects. The process involves helping the learner acquire knowledge or experience. It is important to note that curriculum implementation cannot take place without the learner. The learner is therefore the central figure in the curriculum implementation process. There are various factors that influence Curriculum Implementation like the learners, resource materials and facilities, the teacher, the school environment, culture and ideology, instructional supervision and assessment. This Research paper has outlined some of the factors that influence the implementation of a curriculum and discussed how each factor influences the implementation process. Do remember that in educational practice, these factors interact with each other and generate influences that cannot be attributed to one factor or another. You should view them as a whole.

Rational:

We must care

fully determine the ends/goals first and then decide about the means to achieve them. The more intelligent and sensible the planning, the more rational an action is likely to be. Actions which deviate from this procedure are correspondingly less rational. Curriculum development is a rational and responsible process; it must be planned carefully and cautiously.

Objectives:

After this study learners will be able to:

  • Define curriculum.
  • Explain which factors affect on curriculum development in Pakistan.
  • Enlist the forces influencing curriculum development.

 

Thesis Statement:

  • Definition of Curriculum:
  • Factor Affecting Curriculum Development in Pakistan
  • Psychological Factors
  • Social Factors
  • Politics Factors
  • Economical Factors
  • Educational Factors
  • Technological Factors
  • Gender Factors
  • Conclusion:
  • References:

 

 

   What is curriculum?

                                       A detailed plan for instruction set by policy-makers. As applied to education, curriculum is the series of things that students must do and experience by way of developing abilities to do the things well that adults do in life; and to be in all ways the people that they should be as adults.

Factor Affecting Curriculum Development in Pakistan:

There are following factors which effect on curriculum in Pakistan. From those some factors are discussed here.

  1. Psychological Factors

The purpose of psychology is to study human behavior. Psychology contributes to curriculum planning by providing teachers with information concerning the nature of students, the nature of the process involved in learning, the motivation, personality and individual differences of students, the value of teaching methods and teaching effectiveness.

  1. Social or Societal Factors

The purpose of sociology is the analysis of organized human relationship. Its major contribution to curriculum has been the making of decisions about the content of the curriculum and its main focus has been the understanding of the direction of social change and the socialization of the individual. Its method of working involves providing extensive information about the social background of students, promoting a realistic evaluation of the role of the teacher and school in social change. It increases teacher’s flexibility, tolerance and awareness of methods of inquiry. It keeps in mind that primary school curriculum differs from secondary school curriculum. The needs of society play an important role in development of the curriculum, e.g. it should be emphasis on a technical based curriculum for the development of an industrialized society.

  1. Political Factors

Politics has a certain impact on all spheres of life, and instability of politics leads to instability in everyday life. It usually defines goals and content; political considerations need to be admitted while curriculum development; and political decisions may change the requirements for curriculum development.

Governments need to promote nationalism, patriotism and ideologies. Therefore have polices according to which they send out directives. The directives state the medium of instruction, the nature of the syllabus and the kind of textbook etc.

  1. Economical Factors

As compared to the elite schools where this is hardly a problem, schools belonging to the lower social strata cannot entertain the possibility of using modern equipment, e.g. the computer, due to financial constraints. This also leads to losing good teachers and other personnel to places offering better remuneration.

  1. Educational Factors

In order to bring about effective learning modern and efficient methods of education should be used and for this we need trained and skilled teachers. We also need to keep co-curricular activities like sports, drama, debates, excursions, etc. as an integral part of the curriculum.

  1. Technological Factors

The influence of technological progress is observed in each sphere of life, and when the time for curriculum development comes, the technological point plays an important role.

Curriculum developers cannot ignore this technological progress and the influence it presents. Technological innovations may be applied to curriculum development in several ways “as a plan for the systematic use of various devices and media” and as the issue that “is found in models and procedures for the construction or development and evaluation of curriculum materials and instructional systems”.

  1. Gender Factors

The needs of each gender are also kept in mind for the development of curriculum. Although this is the age where women have gone into professions which were previously considered the domain of male gender and women are asking for equal rights, yet option should be left open, e.g. home economics for girls and technical education for boys, though these should not be strictly the domains of females or males respectively. In advanced countries where women enjoy a greater degree of freedom, a variety of educational institutions exist that separately cater the male and female curriculum needs.

 

Conclusion:

Curriculum development in Pakistan is much more than handling out new materials for courses of study. It requires an understanding of the program’s purpose, the roles people will play, and those who are affected. The process must be planned, but not rigidly. It requires continued fine-tuning. It requires a community of trust. Without doubt, the most important person in the curriculum development process is the teacher. With their knowledge, experiences and competencies, teacher can implement the barrier free curriculum in inclusive classroom.

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