Basic Computing

Characteristics of the CPU and its different units

The central processing unit contains the most important parts of a computer. Here we will show you the main characteristics of the CPU , including those of the elements that make it up. types of cpu

CPU Features

types of cpu
types of cpu

The Central Processing Unit, commonly known as a CPU, central processor or microprocessor, is part of the hardware of a computer, that is, the physical or tangible part of it. Specifically, it is about the casing of this and the computer elements and electronic chips that are inside.

In this way, the CPU is made up of: Motherboard, microprocessor, RAM memory, hard disk, optical storage devices, expansion cards and ports. In addition, it has the following units: Instruction decoding unit, arithmetic-logic unit and bus control unit.

On the other hand, the main characteristics of the CPU are mentioned . These are:

The CPU is one of the three basic functional blocks of a computer, as it is in charge of interpreting and carrying out the instructions from the programs stored in memory. Basically, it receives input data, which it transforms into intermediate results, and then returns it as output data. types of cpu

Thus, its operation is closely related to that of memory and the input and output devices of the computer. In other words, both the memory, the CPU and the peripherals must be connected to each other. This is possible thanks to the bus, group of cables or digital lines that allow interaction between them.

On this last aspect, you may also be interested in reading the article on the types of buses . Cheer up!

Instruction decoding unit types of cpu

types of cpu
types of cpu

As its name indicates, it is responsible for interpreting the instructions that are received from the software. That is, it is in charge of extracting the action to be carried out, as well as establishing the way to obtain the necessary data for it.

Ultimately, this unit allows the instructions to be divided into parts, which represent some specific meaning for the other units of the central processing unit.

Arithmetic-logical unit types of cpu

It is mostly known as ALU, by the acronym in English for Arithmetic-Logic Unit. It is a logic circuit whose main function is to carry out logical, mathematical and shift operations and bit rotations. In this way, it is the arithmetic-logical unit that defines the calculation operations that the computer can perform.

The operation of the ALU begins with the entry of the data that act as operands, to which operations such as: addition, subtraction, and, or, not, etc. are applied, as the case may be. Finally, the output occurs as a result of these operations.

Bus control unit

This unit is in charge of controlling and timing the transfer of information, both internal and external. It indicates what each component must do, as well as when it can act. This is possible through the generation of ordered sequences of internal and external signals, suitable for the execution of the instructions, which make up the so-called instruction cycle.

So this sequential circuit accesses the instruction of a program, reads the operands, executes the operation supplied by the arithmetic-logical unit and stores the result.

Finally, it should be mentioned that the CPU also has a bank of registers, which although it is not an essential element of the architecture of the central processing unit, it is sometimes considered as one of the units that we have previously described.

Record bank types of cpu

Basically, this series of registers consists of a set of special memory locations, which facilitate access to operands and places for storing results.

In general terms, registers are cells that are located within the processor, and whose main function is to temporarily store data. This in order to streamline the work of the CPU.

The operation of this multiport file consists of writing the data into the registers, applying the corresponding operations and storing the results equally in the registers, shortening the time to access them. types of cpu

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