Basic Computing

Parts of the computer and their main functions

In a world controlled by computers in common, it calls our attention to know what the parts of the computer are , what the parts of the computer are for and what the parts of the computer and their functions consist of . In this article you will know, thanks to precise and detailed information, what are the parts of the computer? And the characteristics of its main functions. parts of computer and their functions

Computer parts parts of computer and their functions

As you may already know, computers are the work tools par excellence today. And that is why we will present the definitions and operation of the parts of the computer.

In the system unit or Case are most of the components or parts of the computer, such as the RAM memory, the video card, the power supply, among others. These components are connected to the enclosure by cables and / or ports.In the case of laptops or laptops, parts such as the mouse, keyboard, speakers, among others are integrated into the case. First, we will talk about the “brain”, which is perhaps one of the most important parts of the computer that there is.

Central processing unit parts of computer and their functions

Better known as CPU (Central Processing Unit). The Central Processing Unit is one of the parts of the computer that is inside the Cabinet. It is in charge of searching, interpreting, executing and rewriting the system instructions. All components are guided and commanded by the CPU.

parts of computer and their functions
parts of computer and their functions

The CPU is made up of three blocks: the control unit, the processing unit and the input / output bus.

CU parts of computer and their functions

These control units search the hard disk storage space for algorithms or instructions, to interpret them and then order the Process Unit to execute them.

Process unit: parts of computer and their functions

After the Control Unit locates and decodes the instructions that must be carried out, it sends these indications to the Processing Unit so that it can execute them. Then, the Process Unit is in charge of carrying out the indications commanded by the Control Unit.The Process Unit has, in turn, the Arithmetic Logical Unit (ALU):

Arithmetic Logic Unit: parts of computer and their functions

The internal programming of the system uses simple mathematics, such as adding, subtracting, multiplying, dividing or changing signs. It also has logical operators such as NOT, AND, OR, XOR, or with logical processes such as bit comparisons, shifts, or rotations.Nowadays, CPUs have evolved, now having several cores, and each nucleus has several Execution Units, which in turn have several Arithmetic Logic Units.ALUs can also be found in video image processing cards or, as they are popularly known, video cards. The benefit of each part of the computer having its Arithmetic Logic Units independently is that the consumption of resources from the Central Processing Unit is not avoided.

BUS input / output: parts of computer and their functions

They are each communication path that is responsible for establishing the connection between the parts of the computer.A computer can be considered to have good performance based on its processing speed, its updated software, and its internal memory space. These three characteristics are related to the storage of a computer.A computer can continue to save information even when it is turned off. The two main components that store data are the Hard Drive and the RAM Memory Card.

parts of computer and their functions
parts of computer and their functions

HDD parts of computer and their functions

It may also be known as a Hard Disk Drive or Hard Disk Drive, but it is more commonly known as a Hard Disk. This is responsible for collecting practically all the information of the applications, programs and files existing on the computer.Its name comes from the way it is composed, since it has one or more rigid disks made or covered with magnetic material. When there are more than one disc, they are positioned one on top of the other with a suspended reader / writer between each one. The information is magnetically recorded on the discs so that it cannot be erased and can be recovered if it is damaged.

parts of computer and their functions
parts of computer and their functions

RAM parts of computer and their functions

The RAM memory from its acronym in English “Random Access Memory”, or Random Access Memory, stores the information that is being handled at that moment. This means that it stores the data temporarily, with the aim of having the data with which they are working at that moment within less reach.This means that being able to open more than one application at the same time, and that both are operating at the same time without our computer crashing, is thanks to the RAM memory. In fact, one of the characteristics that we must take into account when buying a computer, and even a cell phone, is its RAM memory.All the information that is in the RAM memory will be erased when we turn off our computer, although this does not imply that it is definitively. This is because as we said before, its function is to save the data that is used at the moment. That is, it saves the information necessary for the execution of the files or programs, but not the file or program itself, since these are saved on the Hard Drive.

parts of computer and their functions
parts of computer and their functions


The motherboard, motherboard or main board is a part of the computer and physically consists of an electronic card that has:

  • Power supply connectors
  • Single or multiprocessor Central Processing Unit socket
  • RAM slots
  • Integrated circuits or chipset.

All parts of the computer will be connected to this board, so the Motherboard must be compatible with the rest of the components. Therefore, the Motherboard establishes the amounts and types of RAM memories, Disk Units, Video Cards, and others with which it can work together.ROM (Read Only Memory) memory is integrated in the Motherboard. ROM should not be confused with RAM, since ROM contains information that cannot be erased or rewritten. Hence its name Read Only Memory. ROM is where the BIOS firmware is located, which performs the analysis of the keyboard, devices, and video. Additionally, the BIOS firmware is where the operating system is loaded or saved.

parts of computer and their functions
parts of computer and their functions


The monitor is one of the parts of the computer where the user interface is reflected. In older computers, before monitors existed, signals were sent to the operator by lights. Later, punch cards emerged. Then the teletypes appeared. Finally, during the 70s the first monitors were created.


Known in Spanish as the mouse, it is in charge of being the guide of the pointer that we observe on our monitor. This pointer indicates to the system if we want to open / close, select / distill, activate / deactivate, applications, commands or system functions.It consists of two buttons, a main one (left), and a secondary one (right). The most up-to-date mice on the market are wireless, meaning they don’t require a cable. Likewise, it has a wheel to scroll up and down in a window or on the screen.


The keyboard is one of the parts of the computer that is made up of buttons that have numbers, letters and punctuation marks engraved on them. There are also keys called function keys, navigation keys, and numeric keypad.

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