Differences

Difference between internal fragmentation and external fragmentation

Main Difference between internal and external fragmentation

The main difference between internal fragmentation and external fragmentation is that internal fragmentation is the storage space that remains unused between allocated memory blocks, while external fragmentation is the holes between contiguous blocks that are too small to serve. an application.

Internal fragmentation vs. external fragmentation

Internal fragmentation is a type of fragmentation that occurs when larger memory is allocated to a program instead of required. Here the free space is known as internal fragmentation. On the other hand, external fragmentation is the type of free space that forms between non-contagious memory blocks.

The reason for internal fragmentation is partitioning of memory into fixed-size blocks. On the other hand, external fragmentation is the process that takes place when memory is divided into blocks of variable size according to the size of the different processes.

The problem of internal fragmentation can be solved by allocating memory to programs in dynamic portions of memory blocks as desired and releasing it when it is not needed during the execution of a program. On the other hand, external fragmentation can be resolved by paging, compacting, and segmenting so that memory can be allocated to a program in a non-contiguous manner.

Comparative chart

Internal fragmentation External fragmentation
The difference between the memory required for a program and the memory allocated is known as internal fragmentation. The gaps or unused space that arises between waste or non-contagious storage fragments and is too short to store a new program is known as external fragmentation.
Refers to
Refers to the space that remains unused between blocks in a mapped region. Refers to the space that is left unused because it is too short to store a request.
Reason
The reason for internal fragmentation is partitioning of memory into fixed-size blocks. External fragmentation occurs when memory or storage is made up of blocks of various sizes depending on the size of different programs.
Idea
Occurs when more space is allocated to a program than required. It occurs when a program is removed from memory leaving free space that causes external fragmentation.
Solution
This can be solved by allocating memory to programs in dynamic portions of memory blocks as you like and freeing it up when you don’t need it during the execution of a program. It can be solved by paging, compacting, and slicing, so memory can be allocated to a program in a non-contiguous manner.

What is internal fragmentation?

Difference between internal and external fragmentation
Difference between internal and external fragmentation

Internal fragmentation is a type of fragmentation that occurs when larger memory is allocated to a program instead of required. Occurs when memory is allocated to blocks of fixed size.

Whenever a program demands memory, the system allocates a fixed-size block. So if the memory allocated to the program is greater than the memory requested, then the difference between the memory required for a program and the memory allocated for it is known as internal fragmentation. This space within the fixed-size block cannot be allocated to any program because it would not be enough to store a new program.

The internal fragmentation problem can be solved by dividing memory into variable-size blocks and assigning the best-size block to a program that requires memory. It will not totally solve the problem of internal fragmentation, however, it will mitigate it to some extent.

Example

Below is an example of internal fragmentation. Memory space is divided into 18,470-byte fixed-size blocks. But, a program demands 18,460 bytes. The system will allocate it with a partitioned block of fixed size, that is, 18,470 bytes. As a result, 10 bytes out of 18,470 bytes will remain empty, which is the source of internal fragmentation.

What is external fragmentation?

Difference between internal and external fragmentation
Difference between internal and external fragmentation

External fragmentation is the gaps or unused space that arises between non-contagious memory or storage fragments and is too short to store a new program. It occurs when there is an adequate amount of free space in a system’s storage memory to meet the memory demand of a program. But the demand of the program cannot be implemented or satisfied since the available memory of the system is in a non-adjacent way or way.

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Either you are applying first-fit memory allocation strategy or best-fit memory allocation strategy, it will be the reason for external fragmentation. It occurs when a program is loaded and removed from a memory leaving a free space that creates gaps. There are a large number of these holes in memory space that cause external fragmentation.

The first-fit and best-fit memory allocation strategy can reduce the amount of external fragmentation, but it cannot be completely eliminated. Paging, compacting, and segmentation can solve external fragmentation.

The compaction algorithm causes all memory content to move to one side and frees a large block of memory. But it is an expensive procedure. A workaround to resolve this problem is to allow a process to obtain physical memory non-contiguously. This solution can be achieved using the paging and segmentation processes.

Example

In a computer system, when a program requests space, the blocks are allocated in chunks. Suppose that to store information and data in a system, there is a single empty memory chunk. Now, there is a program that we want to store in memory. The program will be dynamically saved in memory, that is, randomly, where you feel comfortable or find space. When the next program needs to be saved, it will be adjusted accordingly in the memory space. Now, we remove a program from the system. It will leave space or a hole in memory. This hole or space cannot be used with the other storage, even if it is present alongside the free memory and causes external fragmentation to form.

Key differences

  1. The difference between the memory required for a program and the memory allocated for it is known as internal fragmentation, while the gaps or unused space that arises between non-contagious memory fragments and is too short to store a new program is known as external fragmentation.
  2. Inner fragmentation refers to the space that remains unused between blocks in an allocated region, on the other hand, outer fragmentation refers to the space that remains unused because it is too short to store a request.
  3. The reason for internal fragmentation is partitioning of memory into fixed-size blocks. In contrast, external fragmentation occurs when memory or storage is made up or divided into blocks of varying size depending on the size of different programs.
  4. Internal fragmentation occurs when more space is allocated to a program than is required. On the other hand, external fragmentation occurs when a program is removed from memory leaving free space in system storage causing external fragmentation.
  5. The problem of internal fragmentation can be solved by allocating memory to programs in dynamic portions of memory blocks as desired and releasing it when it is not needed during the execution of a program. On the other hand, external fragmentation can be resolved by paging, compacting, and segmenting so that memory can be allocated to a program in a non-contiguous manner.

Conclusion

The discussion above summarizes that internal fragmentation and external fragmentation are two processes in computing storage that cause wasted storage space. Internal fragmentation occurs when more space is allocated to a program than required, while external fragmentation occurs when a program is removed from memory leaving free space.

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