C Language Basics: Functions and application in programming

When talking about programming languages ​​you can have a wide variety of which can be used, however, currently the C Language stands out , that is why this article will explain everything about this language for a greater compression of it c language basics

C language c language basics

 c language basics
c language basics

The C language is one of the oldest programming languages ​​since it was programmed between 1969 and 1972, developed and written by Dennis M Ritchie, thus being the evolution of the B language, with the purpose of general programming objectives and not to objects.

It is known that this programming language is one of the most widely used today, used in operating systems generally applied to perform and program a wide variety of classes of tasks in the system, it is characterized by being a medium-level language.

It has a high popularity of data types in the C language and why it gives the possibility of producing system software, it also offers the option of implementing different classes, as well as various methods, some attributes, in the same way encapsulating and even polymorphism. c language basics

It complies with each of the C syntax and you have the option of carrying out object-directed programming without any difficulty at the time you are designing the code for the software.

It is highly efficient when creating the specific code, and it is implemented in the Unix operating system, it is also used for the creation of various characteristic applications. Due to its structure, it has extensions that allow the combination of codes to facilitate memory entry.

A fundamental characteristic of the structure of the C Language is that it has a medium level due to the fact that it has the general and basic structures of languages ​​that are high level and the ability to handle very low level languages.

With this C language, it is possible to increase the interaction with other languages ​​that are specific and have specialized ones such as YACC and LEX, giving greater ease at the time of programming. It has a wide variety of storage classes to keep the compilations that are presented saved.

The C language gives the facility of a possible modulation with the different storages that the variables have, it also presents a process that is integrated cpp. In some cases, it requires that certain macro prototypes be integrated in order to automate the system by applying the required parameters with the necessary conditions.

If you want to know what is the interface present in the part that has the interaction with the user in a web page, then it is recommended to go to Front End Developer , where it is explained how this programmer has various functions to give the information to the server so that is processed, it also explains the most important aspects that it has


When talking about philosophy, reference is made to the purpose of Language C, it is sought that the least amount of language is used in the device, without the need to make a translations of each of the elements so that it is used as a style of intermediary between the various languages ​​presented.

It gives the possibility that the letter C can be written with the level of abstraction, avoiding any type of failure in the system due to its simple characteristics, giving the option of an increase in the development of compilers in Language C. Thanks to these characteristics it is compatible with a considerable number of operating systems, thus boosting programming on devices.

It is known that the availability of Language C is very wide, it is even greater compared to other types of languages, in this way it can be applied in a wide number of computers so that in any system Language C can be applied examples of programming.

At first the C Language had the purpose of programming system software mainly associated with the Unix system, but over time it has gained recognition and popularity in this area of ​​computing, thus increasing its applications in program systems. giving a greater variety of use.

By means of the C Language, programming with lower-level characteristics can be carried out in a high way in which various functions can be implemented to achieve the structures that are desired in the characteristic applications. Thanks to this design, this type of programming language can be applied to portable systems.

It does not require an assembler application and it is thanks to these characteristics that it can be used with devices with different operating systems available. It is important to remember that this C programming language can differentiate the option of upper and lower case letters, giving the possibility of maintaining the portability that it presents.

 c language basics
c language basics

If you want to know everything about the programming of development systems of a specific software, then you are invited to read the Microservices article , where it is explained what it consists of, the architecture it has, its main characteristics, as well as the advantages and disadvantages that it has.


The C language is very old, so some people may tend to think that this programming language is currently obsolete, even making it difficult for the programmer to develop, but this is not the case since thanks to this programming language it is possible to apply various functions that allow a wide range of possibilities in the system.

It has a great variety in programming so that various procedures can be carried out, apply different commands presented by the equipment system, also control the linked devices, and can even grant new functions in the development of the programming.

Generally, this programming language is not applied in graphic management since its creation does not have this capacity, however, having a high number of libraries that has various functions that include the possibility of appending a code so that it can be expand its capabilities and functions.

It gives the advantage of confirming the base code of the operating systems, be it Unix, Windows, among others. This is thanks to each of the characteristics and properties that it has, which is why the main general properties that the C Language has are shown below:

 c language basics
c language basics
  • It presents a very straightforward and simple programming language core
  • It has mathematical functions
  • You can manage files that are provided by libraries
  • It is characterized by being a structured programming language in such a way that it maintains control of the program data
  • It also manages the types of data that are structured
  • It offers fixes in the system data, as well as links and pointers with specific functions
  • It has the ability to detect the inconsistencies of the different failures and errors that arise
  • A value can be given to a given variable with a different type
  • Use a preprocessed type of language
  • Uses C language preprocessing to perform various tasks
  • You can define macros
  • Incorporates a wide range of source code files
  • It has a low-level memory entry through the application of pointers or also pointers
  • It presents a control of interruptions through the library named as signal
  • Gives a series of keywords or specific which are a reduced set in the program
  • It has the ability to transit the pointers in some variables so that it can be called by a reference
  • Presents various kinds of storage
  • Use storage to establish a modular design
  • Through specific keywords it has the ability to encapsulate variables and functions, among these words there is “stactic” which allows this action
  • For the declaration of the structure, it must be done through some keywords, in order to include the Cartesian product that the records are being, the keyword to use is “struct”
  • It has the function of including trees
  • Use the keyword “union” to establish the unions of the structures with the different types of variables that are presented

Prevention in the application of the C Language

It is understood that the C Language has great advantages, as well as applications nowadays, so its use is very varied in the operating systems of the equipment and devices. With its design the structures of the programs can obtain better results in the programming of the application.

 c language basics
c language basics

However, some care must be taken when applying this C Language, mainly to people who work in this area of ​​programming because it is very susceptible at the time of managing memory characteristics, that is why it is recommends that when applying this programming language you have the correct methods in its use.

At the moment that an increase in memory should be given through a release is when you must be very careful with each of the steps that are being carried out. For this, other languages ​​such as C # or the Java language can be applied, so that it is possible to execute memory management in a transparent way.

In this way, you can reduce any failure that may be generated as well as any error that occurs at the time of program development, another advantage that avoids a greater complication when the workload is being executed in the application. Although doing this form the flexibility that the language has at the time of controlling the hardware is lost.

Due to all these details, novice people in this area of ​​programming must have convenient and optimal practices at the time of writing in C as well as the memory management of the device. It is also recommended to have the all-encompassing knowledge of handling pointers.

At the time that the C language is used intensively, the indentation must be careful with each of the steps that must be controlled as well as those that must be developed. That is why each of the important points that this language has is sought in order to take advantage of each of the advantages and benefits it offers.

The C language presents some shortcomings or lacks in details and characteristics that may be useful in the operation of the structure designed in the system, but by taking into account these limitations that is presented in this language, other possibilities can be used when designing the writing to a high speed on each build determined for the various platforms available.

In this way, control of what is being developed in the program can be maintained, always with a direct organization in the application system, giving the possibility of having the ability to provide the basic response for each of the specific platforms. Thanks to these solutions you can have the results with greater efficiency compared to other programming languages.

When programming the application with a C language with great care in its assembly language mode resolutions that gives the ability to generate a code at a higher speed. Thanks to this prevention in the use of this language, giving greater control over the devices that are being applied.

As the technology and development of microprocessors advances today, it increases with the development of C compilers, increasing increasingly and gradually between each advance, marking a difference in the operation of this language due to the fact that a more capabilities that can be used through this language.

With each care and prevention that is applied at the time of using this C language, an extension can be made available through libraries and macros, based on each of the codes that can be applied, also each of the implementations offered such as C ++ to give the ability to be able to perform the correct translation of the source code specifically from C ++ to C code


The C language is considered old by the time it was developed, however it is used for various situations in programming today, thus gaining its popularity in its application as well as the advantages that even today, being one of the programming languages most popular that are used.

According to the history of the creation of this language it was between the years of 1969 and 1973, created by Dennis Ritchie developed in the Bell Laboratories of AT&T, in which it was based on the B language for the essential descriptions that it gave to this programming language. . It is said that 1972 was when the greatest advance was made in the development of its general properties.

At first this C Language was developed only for the Unix system, but with each advance in its implementations it was possible to expand its compatibility with other operating systems. Due to the large number of benefits that this language offers, programmers apply measures to increase their capabilities.

When talking about the advancement of this programming language, reference should be made to the programmers who applied Space Travel with the desire to allow this development in this language. With the use of mainframes that they had in their company, they carried out tests and studies to fulfill their purpose of increasing the advancement in the programming language.

However, they did not have a high level of capacity for the process, since they had the problem of not having the control capacity with 100 users; At that time the complication was presented to Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie because they could not avoid the collisions that were generated with the asteroids.

Due to this problem that arose, the game had to be used on a PDP-7 that they had in offices that did not have a specific job at the time. But they did not have a computer with the operating system, so an operating system had to be developed for the machine. For this, an operating system called PDP-11 was used, although a new problem arose and it was the high cost of this operating system.

Important aspects

This PDP-11 operating system was written with an assembly language, this being the reason for its high cost, that is why it was chosen to use a high-level and portable programming language so that the operating system had the ability to to be able to be transferred from one device to another, being one of the properties of this operating system because it was of a high level.

It was intended to use the B language but it could not be done because it did not present the functions that allowed the use of these characteristics that the PDP-11 operating system provided. Due to these advanced characteristics of this system, it was sought to implement a programming language that was compatible with this system, and this is where the development of the creation of the C Language begins.

The reason to have an original equipment so that a system that is Autonomous for Unix can be generated. Therefore, the system automated the patent files, and using the C language, a programmer was generated that gave the possibility of rewriting the operating system that is being used.

In 1973, this programming language created, the C language, obtained greater power, being mostly made up of the Unix kernel, in which it can be said that from the beginning it had a script with the PDP-11/20 assembly language that with its development it was possible to generate a new writing being the well-known C.

It is known that the C programming language was one of the original cores in operating systems that was incorporated without counting the assembly language, so it was a separate language in the system of the equipment available at that time.

First edition of the Language C book

It was in 1978 that the first publication of this new programming language was made, being the first existing edition of The C programming language, which was also called The C Bible, generating a second edition of this book. of the C Language encompassing the ANSI C standard.

With the first edition of this book, a non-formal indication was obtained that provides this language, so this book was also known as The C of Kernighan and Ritchie. Due to its wide use, this language was implemented in operating systems, so the popularity of this book was growing, even obtaining the name in a simpler way as K&R C, with the corresponding initials.

So that a large number of diverse and new features could be entered into the programming language, among which the data types stand out, being known as “Strut”, also “Long int”, as well as “Unsigned int”, these being the main data attached.

The introduction of operators was fundamental in this C Language, so its capabilities were increased; These operators include “+ =” and “- =”. Thanks to this introduction, it was possible to eradicate all doubt and syntactic ambiguity in each of the specific expressions that were available, facilitating their understanding in its development and application.

It is known that for a period of time it could be considered as the lowest common denominator, where people at the time of programming it was only used when they intended it to be portable, remembering that C refers to a series of subset of the language being the most basic and general part that supports each compiler available.

General details

 c language basics
c language basics

Although it included the inclusion of ANSI C, the drawback was generated in that at that time not all compilers available at the time of programming had the ability to support or be compatible with ANSI, which also generated the problem of code of this language which was also based on the ANSI C code.

With the advancement of technology, the C language acquired characteristics that facilitated the advantages it offered, however in the first versions it had some functions in the prototype version that were in charge of indicating the type or class of return according to the function applied to each compiler.

However, it could not check the number of arguments, nor did it indicate the type that was in the list, being a fundamental point where errors were generally made when applying or executing the operation, since it was carried out with errors in the arguments, being these are not correct for programming.

Second edition of the Language C book

But as mentioned above, this language is characterized by having the ability to acquire new updates and advances, giving the option of having new features known for having the support of AT&T compilers, so that the advantages of applying this language grew and it increased as well as its use in computers and operating systems.

The innovative features that could be highlighted among this new update were the great diversity of functions among which is the “void” function, and the ability to return to the various types of data present as “struct”, “union” and “void”. * “. In this way these capabilities were applied instead of using pointers.

An innovation in this update was the provision of a standard library where it offered the integration of a wide variety of functions and capabilities appended by different compiler developers as well as giving specific enumerations. The assignment of the various types of data as well as the qualifier “const” is another of its advantages where it allows a specific object to be read-only at the time of programming.

Development of ANSI C and ISO C

By the year of 1970 it was the beginning or the moment in which this C Language began to replace BASIC, being the general and dominant programming language in microcomputers, due to all the properties and characteristics that programmers offered, they executed each of its functions. functions, as it gave the optimal results and in a very efficient way.

In the years of the 80’s, it was had as a beginning in the application in the IBM PC generating an increase in the popularity of its use, which generated that this language was the predominant one in the specific equipment of the microprocessors, gaining recognition among the other programming languages ​​exponentially.

Simultaneously, the joint work between Bjarne Stroustrup and Bell Labs began, in this way new functions were added in C programming that is oriented especially with objects. This new update in the programming language is known as C ++ with a wide variety of functions and tools thus giving a starting point to programming languages.

With this it can be said that C ++ increased its application in such a way that even today it is applied in the Microsoft Windows operating system, being considered as a common application in these systems, due to its wide capacity in the programming. Unlike the C language that is generally applied in Unix systems.

The great diversity in which it could have in the introduction of new features gave the possibility of increasing the capacities that could be used in programming. It is noted that another language was developed at that time which was called Objective C that presented the integration of characteristics that were especially oriented to objects to C, however it does not have the same popularity that the C ++ language has.

Objective C had the function of giving the possibility of developing various applications, an example was Cocoa that was used for computers with Mac OS on their systems. It was exactly in 1983 that ANSI, which was the acronym for the American National Standards Institute, was in charge of establishing a meeting so that a type of committee called X3j11 was organized.

From this committee to constitute a standard of C in a specific and determined way, but to achieve this purpose a complex process was required in which long and deep procedures with specifications were applied in the conditions that it presents to have the possibility of establishing the standard. by C.

It was in 1989 when the C standard could be finalized, reaching an increase in popularity, being known as the C programming language specifically ANSIX3.159-1989. It had a wide variety of innovative functions and features, becoming commonly called ANSI C, it was even known as C89 because it was the C Language of the year 89.

In 1990 some modifications and changes were made to this ANSI standard language by the action of ISO, which is the acronym of the International Organization for Standardization, generating a new version being called ISO / IEC 9899: 1990, however the modifications do not They were radical so in a very particular way it maintains the main details of the C89 language, which is why it was called C90 from a common hold.

Its objective was to generate a specific extension to C, this was done by Kernighan and Ritchie, giving the complement at the time of the introduction of other functions and capabilities that at that time were not official in programming languages. This formed committee added other new functions, so that the amount available was very high including different prototypes to increase the capacity of each added function.

General details

In addition to adding these innovative functions, a preprocessor was added that had improved characteristics compared to the previous one. In this way, the syntax that it presented in the declaration parameters was modified when executing it in a usual way in the C ++ system, using it to obtain the desired results in the programming process.

At present, the ANSI C language is used in practically all compilers due to the C code of the C programming language that is based on it. It is known that any type of program is written only in standard C without having the code that has a specific dependency on fixed hardware.

In this way, there is adequate operation on various kinds of platforms that support this C language so that they are compatible at the time of programming in the given system. This implementation must be compatible in order to execute each of the specialized commands and features to obtain the desired results.

But it must be taken into account that a large number of programs have a script that requires compiling on a specific platform and also through a specific compiler for various reasons that the program can only be executed in this way .

Among the reasons for this condition is that when applying the libraries that are not standard, the graphical interfaces of the determined user are used. Also when the present compilers are used, the situation can be generated in which the conditions of the given standard cannot be fulfilled.

With the use of the different types of data, this condition of the compilers is forced, these data have similar or equal sizes depending on an organization of the order of the bits that is possessed in the platform that is used. Due to this, the STDC macro can be used, the purpose of which is to separate the code into ANSI fractions and in turn in K&R for each of the available compilers.

ANSI-C Saved Words

Through ANSI-C you can have many functions that gives the possibility of programming with each compiler you have. But for this, characteristic words are usually used that are reserved for said programming language, which are currently used.

Through these words you can execute various commands, among which it is important to know them in order to use each function and capabilities that are presented in this language. That is why the following are the words that are stored in this ANSI C language:

  • Car
  • Break
  • Case
  • Char
  • Cosnt
  • Continue
  • Default c language basics
  • Do
  • Double
  • Else
  • Enum
  • Extern
  • Float
  • For
  • Int
  • Long Register
  • Return
  • Shorts
  • Signed
  • Sizeof
  • Stactic
  • Struct c language basics
  • Switch
  • Typedef c language basics
  • Union
  • Unsigned
  • Void
  • Volatile
  • While

Standard C 99

Thanks to the advance of the development of the standardization of the ANSI language, being specifically in C in which there was stability for a period of time, but in the case of the C ++ Language it maintained a constant evolution in each update of its characteristics and properties offering greater functions in programming. c language basics

So the standard was in constant revision for the 90s to have an improvement in the update. In this way, the ISO 9899: 1999 standard could be generated, being known in a common way as C99. Thanks to this update, a development in the programming was obtained so that the ANSI standard could be adapted in the year 2000 for the month of March.

The C language has presented a large number of updates and advances, where C became a mandatory subset of C ++, this data being very important for the future publications of each update that is carried out. There is no problem when generating the corresponding update of a specific program from C to C ++ since its properties made this work easier in programming.

The code could be saved and kept in a way that was compatible with the introduced languages ​​which were C and C ++ where the specific compilation was carried out. But because with the advancement of technology a new update was carried out, and some of the introduced features were not compatible with C ++.

This is due to the fact that these new properties were not supported in C ++. One case of this situation was the specific initial values ​​of a variable that were static in the structure of said language, thus giving the possibility of defining the “bool” type so that it was very different from how it ran in C ++.

It is known that many of the compilers nowadays have the support of this C99 feature, among which we can highlight the GCC compiler, among others. But there is a problem in which not everyone has a good reception such as Microsoft, Borland, among others. Because of this, it was constantly evolving to maintain advantageous features and add new properties for programming. c language basics

C99 Standard Features c language basics

This update has certain characteristics and properties that it offers to the user so that they can be facilitated in their application as well as in programming. That is why the main characteristics that stand out from this version of the ANSI standardization language are shown below:

  • Presents an online operation
  • It has a series of variables that can be executed and declared no matter where you are.
  • It has some similar features with the C ++ Language
  • You don’t need to declare a variable after another variable, it can be run anywhere
  • It also does not require that the variable of a statement that is composed of
  • Includes a wide number of data types
  • Among the general all that can be highlighted that this language has are: “long long int” and also “complex”
  • It can reduce the problem of the transition from 32-bit to 64-bit
  • It has a boolean data type
  • It has variables that give the representation of complex numbers, giving the possibility of its execution in programming
  • In the case of variable length it is Arrays
  • It offers a wide range of innovative functions among which stands out “snprintf ()”
  • Presents a series of set of headers which were new for this update among those was “stdint.h”
  • As in the case of C ++, it is possible to have independent support
  • Among its main features is its support for comments that are made in an online way which must start with //
  • Develop through simulations in physical and chemical experiments c language basics

Standard C 11 c language basics

The C11 is the common name of one of the updates of the C Language generated in the year 2011 in the month of April, which presents a formal name ISO / IEC 9899: 2011. This new standard had to go through several phases for its publication. So to obtain this standardization it was required to pass through each phase to guarantee a standard with optimal conditions.

From the beginning it was known by the name C1X, this being also another informal name before acquiring the name C11.The final draft was shown in April, its last revision was in October exactly the 10th, and It was published on December 8 after it was ratified by ISO.

Through this new update, new properties were obtained in which it could be used in different operating systems and gives the possibility of modifying the compilers and their structure at the time of organizing the program by means of this standard in the C language of the operating system that is used. arrange.

It establishes a greater support for Unicode strings, being very similar to the C ++ standard, introducing greater amounts of data that were innovative to establish a high level of handling and control of the data that is presented in the program. It also creates two types of data that have the purpose of giving the representation of a series of characters which are UTF-16 and UTF-32. c language basics

New functions have also been added to the standard library so that a series of conversions can be executed to the various formats that are presented. The standard library is stored in uchar.h. With which, with each version, the corresponding verification of the borders that are presented in the standard library can be carried out.


Likewise, the possibility is acquired of making a mark of the chain of characters that are presented with specific prefixes which are u8, u, U. Being corresponding for each representation, that is, UTF-16 and UTF-32; so UTF-8 will keep using the char it had.

With each function introduced, the ability to control and organize the character string is obtained, giving a maximum number to be established at the time of execution of the check to avoid exceeding the limit that was assigned at the beginning of the assigned buffer following a series of commands for your application.

In the same way, the possibility of having a support for the anonymous structures is added, as well as for the unions that are anonymous for the user. Which do not have a name in which it will be identified so that the necessary codes can be created and established that are not verbose or at least have the minimum when adding the defined structuring.

Through this action it is possible to enter the specific fields where the name is not required to be used from the beginning since it causes a hindrance and a greater difficulty in reading the code used. It contains files in which they have other new types of data so that the programming that is executed is carried out without any complications. c language basics

The similar characteristics with C ++ can be noticed in the generic macros that are available when creating the macros you have the option and the ability to follow a path of a translation of the function that is going to be applied according to the basis of the parameters and conditions that are established at the beginning of the programming.

Standard C embedded c language basics

When talking about the C Language, we cannot avoid highlighting the embedded C standard, due to its great characteristics and properties that it presents, facilitating its use at the time of programming, as well as the advantages that can be taken advantage of with this update of the standard established by means of various non-standard extensions of the C Language. c language basics 

In this way, it was possible to introduce some important properties which were not official, such as arithmetic applied at a fixed point, or the various basic operations used in the output and input in the programming that is being executed. by compilations.

In 2008, the group created and commissioned for the standardization of C added some of the unofficial guidelines which reported through a technical report where it was explained how the extension of Language C was carried out, granting a standard that was considered common for each one of the features that you had the ability to add.

It has some objectives that are different from the basic C Language which is applied with a slightly more general purpose for the operating systems of the devices. It has the capabilities of maintaining a certain supervision of external devices as well as being able to have constant control. c language basics

It also uses the architecture available in the internal part of the processor for greater management and organization of applied interruptions, such as executed timers, communications that are presented in a series with a high level of efficiency in the programs, therefore who are specialized in programs that are short c language basics

It has a very high speed where the programs are executed in a very fast way, facilitating any implementation that you want or need to carry out, while maintaining the reading of the code as its maintenance that is presented in the process of the program that is being applied on the device. c language basics

Standard C18 c language basics

In the C language a last update has been made through the renewal of the standard which is called ISO / IEC 9899: 2018, which was developed in 2018 being the last standard that was published for C, and with this renewal new features, new properties and new functions are implemented for a higher level of efficiency in the specific program. c c language basics language basics

It was created by Microchip specifically for the microcontrollers that are available. It has the advantage that it can be purchased for free together with a manual in which each of its operations is explained and how it can be executed in the correct way to reduce possible failures and errors that may arise at the time of executing these characteristics. in compilations. c language basics

It is the replacement of the C11 standard, so all the defects that were in the C11 were eliminated and new features were added for greater support, mainly for CCG 8 and LLVM Clang 6.0. Applying in the same way some properties of the C ++ versions mainly in the parameters and in the established rules.


The purpose of the C language was for the Unix system at first, but with each standardization the ability to extend its functions to other operating systems has been acquired, among which it is used for the development of Windows, Linux, among others. Thus giving the advantage of being able to be used in desktop applications, among which GIMP can be highlighted.

But the applications of this programming language is not limited to the computer science area but expands to other areas such as the area of ​​science since it is used for a wide range of types of experiments to perform simulations for the chemical area, the physical area, and the mathematical area.

Even in the industrial area, this language can be applied since it allows making models that facilitate these experiments by promoting the oil industry such as petrochemicals. It is known that it is used for flight simulations so it is important to execute this language in the correct way due to its high level of importance in the application of these activities. All these tools provide advanced knowledge for programming in operating systems c language basics

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